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Table 1 Overview of HA titer and molecular weight with different microorganisms under different culture conditions

From: Microbial production of hyaluronic acid: current state, challenges, and perspectives

Microorganism Culture mode Culture medium Aeration parameters HA titer and molecular weight References
S. equi subsp zooepidemicus (ATCC 35246) Batch 2.5 L Maltose 20 g/L, CDM 600 rpm
1.3 vvm
[HA]: 2.14 g/L
MW: 2.1 × 106 Da
[5]
S. equi subsp zooepidemicus deficient in β-glucuronidase Batch 100 mL Glucose 40 g/L, trypton 10 g/L, yeast extract 2.5 g/L Anaerobic condition [HA]:0.4430 g/L
MW:2.21 × 106Da
[13]
S. equi subsp zooepidemicus (ATCC 39920) Batch 3.7 L CDM 400 rpm
1 vvm
[HA]:3.66 g/L
MW: 3.8 × 106Da
[17]
S. equi subsp zooepidemicus (ATCC 35246) Batch 2 L Glucose 60 g/L, CDM 600 rpm
1 vvm
[HA]:4.2 g/L
MW: 3.2 × 106Da
[21]
S. equi subsp zooepidemicus WSH-24 Batch 7 L Yeast extract 25 g/L, sucrose 70 g/L 200 rpm
0.5 vvm
[HA]:6.7 g/L
MW: n.d.
[22]
S. equi subsp zooepidemicus NJUST01 Batch 500 ml Starch 50 g/L, glucose 3 g/L,
peptone 5 g/L
220 rpm [HA]:6.7 g/l
MW: n.d.
[23]
S. equi subsp zooepidemicus G1(mutant of ATCC39920) Batch + pulse 5 L Glucose 40 g/L, polypeptone 20 g/L, yeast extract 10 g/L 10-80% DO [HA]: 3.5 g/L
MW: 2.19 × 106Da
[28]
S. equi subsp zooepidemicus (ATCC 35246) Batch 2 L Glucose 20 g/L, yeast extract 10 g/L 600 rpm
0.3 vvm
[HA]:2.1 g/L
MW:n.d.
[26]
S. equi subsp zooepidemicus (ATCC 39920) Batch 3 L Glucose20 g/L, yeast extract 10 g/L 300 rpm
1 vvm
[HA]:2.3 g/L
MW:n.d.
[30]
S. equi subsp zooepidemicus WSH-24 Batch 7 L Yeast extract 25 g/L, sucrose 70 g/L Adding oxygen vector
200 rpm
0.5 vvm
[HA]:6.6 g/L
MW:n.d.
[31]
S. equi subsp zooepidemicus (ATCC 39920) Fed-batch 2.5 L glucose 5 g/L, yeast extract 2.5 g/L 20% DO [HA]:3.5 g/L
MW:n.d
[35]
S. equi subsp zooepidemicus (ATCC 35246) cC Continuous culture 2 L Glucose 15 g/L, yeast extract 10 g/L 200 rpm
0 vvm
[HA]:0.6 g/L
MW:n.d
[34]
S. equi subsp zooepidemicus (ATCC 39920) Repeated batch 3 L Glucose2 0 g/L, yeast extract 10 g/L, tryptone 1.7 g/L, soytone 0.3 g/L 10%DO 0.59 g HA/(L·h)
MW:n.d
[36]
Streptococcus sp. ID9102 (KCTC1139BP) Batch 75 L Glucose 40 g/L, yeast extract 7.5 g/L, casein peptone 10 g/L 400 rpm
0.5 vvm
[HA]:6.94 g/L
MW: 5.9 × 106Da
[37]
S. equi subsp zooepidemicus WSH-24 Fed-batch 7 L Yeast extract 25 g/L, sucrose 70 g/L 200 rpm
0.5 vvm
[HA]:6.6 g/L
MW:n.d
[38]
S. equi subsp zooepidemicus
(ATCC 35246)
Batch 2 L Mussel processing wastewater 50 g/L, tuna peptone 8 g/L 500 rpm
0 vvm
[HA]:2.46 g/L
MW: 2.5 × 106Da
[39]
S. equi subsp zooepidemicus (ATCC 35246) Nitrogen-limited fed-batch 3 L Yeast extract 10 g/L and a
mixture of inorganic salts
600 rpm.
0.05 vvm.
[HA]:2.2 g/L
MW:n.d
[40]
S. equi subsp zooepidemicus (ATCC 39920) Batch 2 L Glucose (10-60) g/L, yeast extract 10 g/L 300 rpm,
1.3 vvm.
[HA]:1.8 g/L
MW:2.52 × 106 Da
[41]
S. equi subsp zooepidemicus (ATCC 39920) Batch 3 L glucose 25 g/L yeast extract 60 g/L 250 rpm
2 vvm
[HA]:1.21 g/L
MW:4 × 107Da
[25]
S. equi subsp zooepidemicus (ATCC 39920) Batch 125 mL glucose 25 g/L yeast extract 60 g/L 150 rpm
liquid volume: 50 mL in 125 mL
[HA]:0.65 g/L
MW:7.4 × 107Da
[24]
S. equi subsp zooepidemicus mutant Fed-batch 100 L CDM 400-1,200 rpm,
0.5-2.0 vvm
[HA]: 6-7 g/L
MW:3.2 × 106 Da
[27]
S. equi subsp zooepidemicus #104 Batch 2 m3 Peptone20 g/L, yeast extract 10 g/L 30 rpm;
0.5 vvm;
0.05 MPa.
MW:4.3 × 106 Da [33]
S. equi subsp zooepidemicus (ATCC) 39920 Batch 250 mL Agricultural resource derivatives medium 150 rpm [HA]:0.89 g/L,
MW:103 to 104 Da
[47]
Recombined Bacillus subtilis
(hasA-hasD-VHb)
Batch 250 mL Modified minimal medium, 10 g/L glucose 170 rpm
liquid volume: 50 mL in 250 mL flask
[HA]:1.8 g/L
MW:n.d.
[3]
Recombinant Lactococcus lactis
(hasA-hasB)
Batch 250 mL M17 medium, 10 g/L glucose 170 rpm
liquid volume: 50 mL in 250 mL flask
[HA]:0.65 g/l
MW:n.d.
[2]
Recombinant Bacillus subtilis RB161(hasA-tuaD-gtaB) Fed-batch 3 L minimal medium with sucrose 1300 rpm
1.5 vvm
MW:1 × 106 Da [8]
Recombinant Escherichia coli
(sshasA-ssugD)
Fed-batch 250 mL LB medium liquid volume: 40 mL in 250 mL flask [HA]:190 mg/L
MW:3.5 × 105 to 1.9 × 106 Da
[15]
Recombinant Agrobacterium sp.
(pmHas-kfiD)
Batch 250 mL LB medium 250 rpm
liquid volume: 50 mL in 250 mL flask
[HA]:0.3 g/L
MW:0.7 × 106 to 2 × 106 Da
[14]
Recombinant S. equi subsp zooepidemicus
(hasA-hasB-hasC-hasD-hasE)
Batch 2 L glucose 20 g/L, uridine 50 mg/L, CDM 300 rpm
0 vvm
MW:1.8 × 106 to 3.4 × 106 Da [16]
Recombinant Escherichia coli
(pmHas-kfiD)
Fed-batch 1 L Glucose 45 g/L, GlcNAc 11.8 g/L 10%DO [HA]:3.8 g/L
MW:n.d.
[45]
Recombinant Escherichia coli
(sz-has A with rare codon modifications)
Batch LB medium. --- [HA]:32.5 mg/L [44]
Recombinant Lactococcus lactis
(hasA-hasB-hasC-hasD-hasE)
Batch 2.4 L M17 medium, 20 g/L glucose 200 rpm
1 vvm
[HA]:1.8 g/L [46]