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Table 1 Overview of HA titer and molecular weight with different microorganisms under different culture conditions

From: Microbial production of hyaluronic acid: current state, challenges, and perspectives

Microorganism Culture mode Culture medium Aeration parameters HA titer and molecular weight References
S. equi subsp zooepidemicus (ATCC 35246) Batch 2.5 L Maltose 20 g/L, CDM 600 rpm 1.3 vvm [HA]: 2.14 g/L MW: 2.1 × 106 Da [5]
S. equi subsp zooepidemicus deficient in β-glucuronidase Batch 100 mL Glucose 40 g/L, trypton 10 g/L, yeast extract 2.5 g/L Anaerobic condition [HA]:0.4430 g/L MW:2.21 × 106Da [13]
S. equi subsp zooepidemicus (ATCC 39920) Batch 3.7 L CDM 400 rpm 1 vvm [HA]:3.66 g/L MW: 3.8 × 106Da [17]
S. equi subsp zooepidemicus (ATCC 35246) Batch 2 L Glucose 60 g/L, CDM 600 rpm 1 vvm [HA]:4.2 g/L MW: 3.2 × 106Da [21]
S. equi subsp zooepidemicus WSH-24 Batch 7 L Yeast extract 25 g/L, sucrose 70 g/L 200 rpm 0.5 vvm [HA]:6.7 g/L MW: n.d. [22]
S. equi subsp zooepidemicus NJUST01 Batch 500 ml Starch 50 g/L, glucose 3 g/L, peptone 5 g/L 220 rpm [HA]:6.7 g/l MW: n.d. [23]
S. equi subsp zooepidemicus G1(mutant of ATCC39920) Batch + pulse 5 L Glucose 40 g/L, polypeptone 20 g/L, yeast extract 10 g/L 10-80% DO [HA]: 3.5 g/L MW: 2.19 × 106Da [28]
S. equi subsp zooepidemicus (ATCC 35246) Batch 2 L Glucose 20 g/L, yeast extract 10 g/L 600 rpm 0.3 vvm [HA]:2.1 g/L MW:n.d. [26]
S. equi subsp zooepidemicus (ATCC 39920) Batch 3 L Glucose20 g/L, yeast extract 10 g/L 300 rpm 1 vvm [HA]:2.3 g/L MW:n.d. [30]
S. equi subsp zooepidemicus WSH-24 Batch 7 L Yeast extract 25 g/L, sucrose 70 g/L Adding oxygen vector 200 rpm 0.5 vvm [HA]:6.6 g/L MW:n.d. [31]
S. equi subsp zooepidemicus (ATCC 39920) Fed-batch 2.5 L glucose 5 g/L, yeast extract 2.5 g/L 20% DO [HA]:3.5 g/L MW:n.d [35]
S. equi subsp zooepidemicus (ATCC 35246) cC Continuous culture 2 L Glucose 15 g/L, yeast extract 10 g/L 200 rpm 0 vvm [HA]:0.6 g/L MW:n.d [34]
S. equi subsp zooepidemicus (ATCC 39920) Repeated batch 3 L Glucose2 0 g/L, yeast extract 10 g/L, tryptone 1.7 g/L, soytone 0.3 g/L 10%DO 0.59 g HA/(L·h) MW:n.d [36]
Streptococcus sp. ID9102 (KCTC1139BP) Batch 75 L Glucose 40 g/L, yeast extract 7.5 g/L, casein peptone 10 g/L 400 rpm 0.5 vvm [HA]:6.94 g/L MW: 5.9 × 106Da [37]
S. equi subsp zooepidemicus WSH-24 Fed-batch 7 L Yeast extract 25 g/L, sucrose 70 g/L 200 rpm 0.5 vvm [HA]:6.6 g/L MW:n.d [38]
S. equi subsp zooepidemicus (ATCC 35246) Batch 2 L Mussel processing wastewater 50 g/L, tuna peptone 8 g/L 500 rpm 0 vvm [HA]:2.46 g/L MW: 2.5 × 106Da [39]
S. equi subsp zooepidemicus (ATCC 35246) Nitrogen-limited fed-batch 3 L Yeast extract 10 g/L and a mixture of inorganic salts 600 rpm. 0.05 vvm. [HA]:2.2 g/L MW:n.d [40]
S. equi subsp zooepidemicus (ATCC 39920) Batch 2 L Glucose (10-60) g/L, yeast extract 10 g/L 300 rpm, 1.3 vvm. [HA]:1.8 g/L MW:2.52 × 106 Da [41]
S. equi subsp zooepidemicus (ATCC 39920) Batch 3 L glucose 25 g/L yeast extract 60 g/L 250 rpm 2 vvm [HA]:1.21 g/L MW:4 × 107Da [25]
S. equi subsp zooepidemicus (ATCC 39920) Batch 125 mL glucose 25 g/L yeast extract 60 g/L 150 rpm liquid volume: 50 mL in 125 mL [HA]:0.65 g/L MW:7.4 × 107Da [24]
S. equi subsp zooepidemicus mutant Fed-batch 100 L CDM 400-1,200 rpm, 0.5-2.0 vvm [HA]: 6-7 g/L MW:3.2 × 106 Da [27]
S. equi subsp zooepidemicus #104 Batch 2 m3 Peptone20 g/L, yeast extract 10 g/L 30 rpm; 0.5 vvm; 0.05 MPa. MW:4.3 × 106 Da [33]
S. equi subsp zooepidemicus (ATCC) 39920 Batch 250 mL Agricultural resource derivatives medium 150 rpm [HA]:0.89 g/L, MW:103 to 104 Da [47]
Recombined Bacillus subtilis (hasA-hasD-VHb) Batch 250 mL Modified minimal medium, 10 g/L glucose 170 rpm liquid volume: 50 mL in 250 mL flask [HA]:1.8 g/L MW:n.d. [3]
Recombinant Lactococcus lactis (hasA-hasB) Batch 250 mL M17 medium, 10 g/L glucose 170 rpm liquid volume: 50 mL in 250 mL flask [HA]:0.65 g/l MW:n.d. [2]
Recombinant Bacillus subtilis RB161(hasA-tuaD-gtaB) Fed-batch 3 L minimal medium with sucrose 1300 rpm 1.5 vvm MW:1 × 106 Da [8]
Recombinant Escherichia coli (sshasA-ssugD) Fed-batch 250 mL LB medium liquid volume: 40 mL in 250 mL flask [HA]:190 mg/L MW:3.5 × 105 to 1.9 × 106 Da [15]
Recombinant Agrobacterium sp. (pmHas-kfiD) Batch 250 mL LB medium 250 rpm liquid volume: 50 mL in 250 mL flask [HA]:0.3 g/L MW:0.7 × 106 to 2 × 106 Da [14]
Recombinant S. equi subsp zooepidemicus (hasA-hasB-hasC-hasD-hasE) Batch 2 L glucose 20 g/L, uridine 50 mg/L, CDM 300 rpm 0 vvm MW:1.8 × 106 to 3.4 × 106 Da [16]
Recombinant Escherichia coli (pmHas-kfiD) Fed-batch 1 L Glucose 45 g/L, GlcNAc 11.8 g/L 10%DO [HA]:3.8 g/L MW:n.d. [45]
Recombinant Escherichia coli (sz-has A with rare codon modifications) Batch LB medium. --- [HA]:32.5 mg/L [44]
Recombinant Lactococcus lactis (hasA-hasB-hasC-hasD-hasE) Batch 2.4 L M17 medium, 20 g/L glucose 200 rpm 1 vvm [HA]:1.8 g/L [46]