Overview of central carbon metabolism in L. lactis at various specific growth rates (μ). Black and capitalised metabolites were measured extracellular. Measured metabolites in boxes/ellipses were consumed/produced, respectively. Red/green/white background represents decrease/increase/no change, respectively, in metabolite consumption or production with increasing μ. Red arrows indicate decrease, green arrows increase and black arrows no significant change in transcriptome and proteome expressions when μ 0.5 h-1 is compared with μ 0.1 h-1. Orange arrows represent increase only at transcriptome level with increasing μ. Arrowheads indicate the assumed reaction directions. More specific protein expression fold changes are illustrated on chart.