Secretion and properties of a hybrid Kluyveromyces lactis-Aspergillus niger β-galactosidase
© Rodríguez et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2006
Received: 27 September 2006
Accepted: 18 December 2006
Published: 18 December 2006
The β-galactosidase from Kluyveromyces lactis is a protein of outstanding biotechnological interest in the food industry and milk whey reutilization. However, due to its intracellular nature, its industrial production is limited by the high cost associated to extraction and downstream processing.
The yeast-system is an attractive method for producing many heterologous proteins. The addition of a secretory signal in the recombinant protein is the method of choice to sort it out of the cell, although biotechnological success is not guaranteed. The cell wall acting as a molecular sieve to large molecules, culture conditions and structural determinants present in the protein, all have a decisive role in the overall process.
Protein engineering, combining domains of related proteins, is an alternative to take into account when the task is difficult. In this work, we have constructed and analyzed two hybrid proteins from the β-galactosidase of K. lactis, intracellular, and its Aspergillus niger homologue that is extracellular. In both, a heterologous signal peptide for secretion was also included at the N-terminus of the recombinant proteins. One of the hybrid proteins obtained has interesting properties for its biotechnological utilization.
The highest levels of intracellular and extracellular β-galactosidase were obtained when the segment corresponding to the five domain of K. lactis β-galactosidase was replaced by the corresponding five domain of the A. niger β-galactosidase. Taking into account that this replacement may affect other parameters related to the activity or the stability of the hybrid protein, a thoroughly study was performed. Both pH (6.5) and temperature (40°C) for optimum activity differ from values obtained with the native proteins. The stability was higher than the corresponding to the β-galactosidase of K. lactis and, unlike this, the activity of the hybrid protein was increased by the presence of Ni2+. The affinity for synthetic (ONPG) or natural (lactose) substrates was higher in the hybrid than in the native K. lactis β-galactosidase. Finally, a structural-model of the hybrid protein was obtained by homology modelling and the experimentally determined properties of the protein were discussed in relation to it.
A hybrid protein between K. lactis and A. niger β-galactosidases was constructed that increases the yield of the protein released to the growth medium. Modifications introduced in the construction, besides to improve secretion, conferred to the protein biochemical characteristics of biotechnological interest.
The enzymatic hydrolysis of lactose by β-galactosidase (E.C. 184.108.40.206) is one of the most promising biotechnological processes in development to use the sugar of the milk whey, a by-product of cheese manufacture with high polluting power . β-galactosidases are widely distributed in nature and are produced by animals, plants and microorganisms (bacteria, fungi and yeast). However, the preparations that are commercially available and rated GRAS come from only a few species of yeast and micro fungi, the most important being Kluyveromyces lactis and K. fragilis, Aspergillus niger and A. oryzae. Micro fungi secrete this enzyme extracellularly, however, they produce a lower quantity of enzymatic units than do yeasts and the optimum pH is acid. Micro fungal β-galactosidase utilization for hydrolyzing lactose is restricted to acid wheys . In contrast, yeast β-galactosidase optimum pH is near neutral, consequently making it suitable for saccharifying milk and sweet whey. However, the production and industrial use of this intracellular enzyme are problematic due to the high cost associated with its extraction from the cells and to the low yields obtained as a result of its instability .
The secretion of β-galactosidase to the culture medium would facilitate remarkably the downstream processing, eliminating the step of extraction from the cells and reducing the risk of degradation by intracellular proteases. In the case of small peptides or proteins, efficient secretion can be achieved simply by fusing a secretory signal sequence 5' to the gene. However, for large oligomeric proteins of cytosolic origin, like the β-galactosidase of K. lactis,  consecution of efficient secretion is not so easy. Protein secretion in yeast heterologous systems is influenced by the composition of the medium, culture conditions, phase of growth and structure of the cell wall [5–7]. Protein determinants like size, three-dimensional structure, load, isoelectric point or the glycosylation state are also important [8–10], although their influence has not been completely clarified yet.
Recent studies indicate that the most outstanding structural features influencing secretion are, directly or indirectly, related to protein folding: formation of disulphide bridges [11, 12], glycosylation [13, 14], and union to BiP  or to ubiquitine . Not surprisingly, previous trials of heterologous secretion of β-galactosidase by S. cerevisiae rendered levels of 40% of the enzyme in the culture medium in the case of the protein from A. niger. This enzyme is extracellular in the micro fungus and therefore suitable structural characteristics for this localization are endogenous. On the contrary, in similar conditions but with the Escherichia coli protein, cytosolic in origin, secretion did not surpass 2% in the culture medium [16, 17].
In this work, we successfully attempted to convert the intracellular β-galactosidase of K. lactis in a protein secreted to the medium. We used engineering techniques based on the construction of hybrid proteins with the extracellular β-galactosidase of A. niger. Changes introduced in the hybrid proteins have been evaluated by biochemical methods and discussed to the light of predicted structural models and biotechnological value.
Results and discussion
Construction of hybrid enzymes between the intracellular β-galactosidase of K. lactis and the extracellular β-galactosidase of A. niger
The construction of hybrid enzymes can be performed by means of different procedures from which new variants are arising constantly [19–23]. In our experimental design, homologous recombination was discarded because the homology between genes was insufficient [24, 25]. Therefore, the corresponding constructions were made by PCR amplification of the selected domains, restriction and ligation. Since previous work had demonstrated that, in K. lactis, mutant β-galactosidases with large deletions in the N-terminal region were inactive  we designed two hybrid proteins between K. lactis and A. niger β-galactosidases interchanging the C-terminal region. Constructions were made in the pSPGK1 plasmid  and were called pSPGK1-LAC4-LACA-Bam HI and pSPGK1-LAC4-LACA-Kpn I. Both contain in the N-terminus the secretory signal of the pre-sequence of the K. lactis killer toxin that has rendered good levels of secretion in other trials . In the first construction, the 500 N-terminal amino acids of the K. lactis β-galactosidase were fussed in frame to the 478 amino acids of the C-terminal side of the A. niger enzyme. In the second, only the segment corresponding to the fifth domain, 297 amino acids positioned at the C-terminus, of the K. lactis β-galactosidase was replaced by the corresponding fifth domain, 274 amino acids positioned at the C-terminus, of the A. niger enzyme. The prediction of domains in the proteins from K. lactis and A. niger (Figure 1) was done by multiple alignments and in comparison with the sequence and structure of the E. coli β-galactosidase experimentally determined by crystallography .
Kinetics of secretion
To examine the kinetics of β-galactosidase secretion, a K. lactis β-galactosidase mutant strain, MW190-9B, was transformed with the above described constructions and with the plasmid pSPGK1-LAC4, bearing the gene coding for K. lactis β-galactosidase, as a control. Discontinuous cultures were made in liquid medium in Erlenmeyer flasks.
The strain transformed with the plasmid pSPGK1-LAC4-LACA-Bam HI showed a lower intracellular and extracellular β-galactosidase production than the control. This result may be attributed to the fact that a portion of the catalytic site of the K. lactis β-galactosidase was replaced by the catalytic site of A. niger β-galactosidase. Nevertheless, MW190-9B transformed with pSPGK1-LAC4-LACA-Kpn I showed the highest absolute values of intracellular and extracellular β-galactosidase production, almost three times and twice higher, respectively, than those obtained for MW190-9B transformed with pSPGK1-LAC4, although β-galactosidase activity into the culture medium reaches only 2.6% of the intracellular activity. In this case, the catalytic site from the K. lactis enzyme remained intact, since only the segment corresponding to the fifth domain was exchanged.
However, the growth rate of MW190-9B transformed with pSPGK1-LAC4-LACA-Kpn I diminished to half of the reached by the strain transformed with pSPGK1-LAC4. Cellular lysis was discarded by measuring cellular viability (Figure 2), therefore this slow growth may be attributed to the fact that the cells direct the available energy towards β-galactosidase production rather than division.
Two conclusions are obtained from these results. First, the C-terminal region of A. niger β-galactosidase functionally complements the C-terminal region of K. lactis β-galactosidase. Similarly, the fifth domain of the E. coli β-galactosidase has been related to the ω-fragment and early studies have shown that it folds independently and complements molecules missing this part of the sequence (ω-complementation) . Second, the construction pSPGK1-LAC4-LACA-Kpn I is of biotechnological value and therefore we decide to further characterize this hybrid protein.
Characterization of the hybrid protein LAC4-LACA-KpnI
Determination of optimum pH and temperature, thermal stability, effects produced by divalent cations upon enzymatic activity and calculation of kinetics constants was performed. To carry out these measures, crude extracts of the strain MW190-9B transformed with pSPGK1-LAC4-LACA-Kpn I and with pSPGK1-LAC4 (control) were obtained at the moment of maximum expression of β-galactosidase activity (80 hours).
Determination of the optimum pH
Determination of the optimum temperature
The optimum temperature reported for A. niger β-galactosidase is 50°C  whereas for K. lactis β-galactosidase is 30°C . For the determination of the optimum temperature of the hybrid protein and K. lactis control, the measurements of enzymatic activity were performed at different temperatures, from 15°C to 50°C (Figure 3B). It was observed that whereas in our conditions the optimum temperature for K. lactis β-galactosidase is around 35°C, in the hybrid protein is slightly greater, being near to 40°C. In the same way as for the optimum pH, the constructed hybrid protein presents characteristics that make it more adequate to high temperature during catalysis.
Effects of the divalent cations
The cation Ni2+ exerts different effects in the activity of the native and hybrid proteins (Figure 5B). As previously described by other authors , the cation Ni2+ inhibits K. lactis β-galactosidase activity but over the hybrid enzyme the effect is activator. Crystallographic studies identified possible divalent cations binding sites in the structure of the E. coli β-galactosidase, although no functional significance was ascribed to them . Further studies to determine the relationship between structural features, cation binding and activity of β-galactosidase will be required.
Determination of the kinetic constants
Prediction of the tertiary structure of the β-galactosidase of K. lactis and the hybrid protein
The cellular wall represents in yeasts an additional barrier for the excretion of proteins to the culture. The secretory signal directs the proteins across the secretion route up to the periplasmic space but this does not imply that the protein could cross the cell wall. The hybrid protein obtained in this work, by replacing the fifth domain of the β-galactosidase of K. lactis by the one of A. niger, is active, reaches the culture medium and presents, in addition, greater stability at high temperatures and more convenient kinetics parameters for its biotechnological utilization. Some of these features may be explained to the light of structural changes predicted by homology modelling.
Strains and culture conditions
The Kluyveromyces lactis MW 190-9B strain (MATa lac4-8 uraA Rag+) was used. Liquid batch cultures of transformed cells were grown in Erlenmeyer flasks filled with 20% volume of culture medium at 250 rpm, unless otherwise stated. As inocula, a suitable volume of a stationary phase culture in complete medium  without the amino acid corresponding to the strain auxotrophy, was added to obtain an initial OD600 of 0.2. The same medium was also used as culture media. Samples were taken at regular time intervals to measure growth (OD600), percentage of viable cells, intracellular and extracellular β-galactosidase activity.
Vectors and DNA constructions
The pSPGK1-LAC4 , a derivative of pSPGK1 plasmid  containing the secretory signal that corresponds to the pre-sequence (16 amino acids) of the K. lactis killer toxin (α-subunit) and the PCR-amplified LAC4 gene (which codes for K. lactis β-galactosidase) inserted between the constitutive promoter and the terminator of the S. cerevisiae phosphoglycerate-kinase (PGK) gene, was used for building new vectors. Vectors were constructed as follows:
pSPGK1-LAC4-LACA-BamHI: plasmid pSPGK1-LAC4 was digested with Bam HI. The Bam HI-Bam HI fragment that contains the C-terminal segment of the K. lactis β-galactosidase was removed and replaced by the C-terminal segment of the Aspergillus niger β-galactosidase amplified from pVK1.1  with the following oligonucleotides creating Bam HI sites on the ends of the PCR product: GAAGGATCCTGAGTCTGGCATCTCG, CCACACCCGTCCTGTGGATCC.
pSPGK1-LAC4-LACA-Kpn I: plasmid pSPGK1-LAC4 was digested with Kpn I and ligated to the segment corresponding to the five domain of the A. niger β-galactosidase amplified from pVK1.1 with the following oligonucleotides generating Kpn I sites on the ends of the PCR product: GCGGTACCCCGCGGACACTTCACCGC, GCGGTACCGCCATCTCCTTGCATGC.
A 20 ng amount of template DNA was incubated with 30 pmol of primer-1 and 30 pmol of primer-2 in the presence of 0.25 mM dNTPs, Taq or Pwo polymerase buffer and 2 U of the corresponding polymerase. Initial denaturation was done at 94°C for 2 min, followed by 30 cycles of 1 min at 95°C, 2 min at 50–57°C and 1.5–2.5 min at 72°C. There was a final incubation at 72°C for 10 min to fill-in ends.
Molecular biology procedures
Escherichia coli DH5a strain (supE44 DlacU169 f80lacZDM15 hsdR17 recA1 endA1 gyrA96 thi-1 relA1) was used for the construction of the plasmids and propagation by means of the usual DNA recombinant techniques according to Ausubel et al. . Yeast strains were transformed using the lithium acetate procedure . Plasmid uptake and β-galactosidase production by the transformed strains were identified on plates with the chromogenic substrate X-gal in the corresponding auxotrophic medium.
Percentage of viable cells
The methylene blue solution, which contained 0.01% Methylene Blue (Sigma-Aldrich, M9140) and 2% (w/v) tri-sodium citrate dihydrate in phosphate-buffered saline solution (137 mM NaCl, 2.7 mM KCl, 10 mM Na2HPO4 and 1.8 mM KH2PO4, pH 7.4), was mixed with an equal volume of yeast suspension for 10 min. Unstained cells were assumed to be viable. The stained cells in the mixture were quantified under an optical microscope (Nikon Eclipse 50i). The viability of 100 cells, from five replicates of each sample, was assessed and expressed as the mean percentage of viable cells.
β-galactosidase activity assays
The method of Guarente  as previously described  was used. One enzyme unit (E. U) was defined as the quantity of enzyme that catalyzes the liberation of 1 μmol of ortho-nitrophenol from ortho-nitrophenyl-β-D-galactopyranoside per min under assay conditions. E.U. are expressed per mL of culture medium.
Throughout this paper and unless otherwise specified, the term extracellular β-galactosidase is used to mean the enzyme in the culture medium and the term intracellular β-galactosidase is used to mean the cell-associated enzyme, both periplasmic and cytoplasmic.
Preparation of crude protein extracts
For the preparation of crude protein extracts, the cells were harvested by centrifugation at 7000 rpm for 5 min at 4°C and washed once with distilled water. They were suspended in 20 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.8, 300 mM (NH4)2SO4, 10 mM MgCl2, 1 mM EDTA, 10% glycerol buffer with 0.1 mM PMSF, 4 mM Pepstatin, 4 mM Leupeptin and 2 μM β-mercaptoethanol and broken using a sonicator at 16 μm for a total of 20 min at 4°C making four exposures of 5 min, with 5 min intervals after each. Cell debris was removed by centrifugation at 40000 rpm for 90 min at 4°C. The supernatant constituted the cell-free extract.
Protein was determined by the method of Bradford  using bovine serum albumin (Sigma) as a standard.
Characterization of the hybrid enzyme
The characterization was carried out from a crude extract of the strain of K. lactis MW190-9B/pSPGK1-LAC4-LACA-Kpn I obtained at the moment of maximum expression of β-galactosidase activity (80 hours). As a control, in all the essays performed, the same quantity of protein of a crude extract of the strain of K. lactis MW190-9B/pSPGK1-LAC4, obtained at the moment of maximum expression of β-galactosidase activity, was taken.
In order to calculate the optimum pH, 60 μg of the crude yeast protein extract were incubated in buffer Z (100 mM Na2HPO4, 40 mM NaH2PO4, 10 mM KCl, 1.6 mM MgSO4 and 2.7 mL of β-mercaptoethanol for litre of dissolution) adjusted respectively to pH 5; 5.5; 6; 6.5; 7; 7.5 and 8.
For optimum temperature determination, the enzymatic activity of 60 μg of the crude protein extract was measured at different temperatures: 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45 and 50°C.
In thermal stability experiments, 30 μg of the yeast crude protein extract were incubated during different periods of time to different temperatures: 30, 42, 50 and 60°C.
For the determination of the effects of divalent cations on the enzymatic activity, 100 μg of the crude protein extract and several increasing concentrations (0.1, 0.5, 1.5 and 10 mM) of CaCl2, MgCl2, MnCl2, ZnSO4 or NiCl2 were added to the buffer Z and the enzymatic activity was measured as previously described.
The β-galactosidase activity was tested with the artificial substratum ONPG and the natural substratum lactose. The determination of the β-galactosidase activity in 30 μg of the crude extract was made as above explained, but in presence of different concentrations of ONPG: 2, 3, 6, 8 and 12 mM. Alternatively, 60 μg of the crude extract were incubated with different concentrations of lactose: 5, 20, 40, 80 and 160 mM. To determine lactose hydrolysis, a commercial kit was used (Boehringer-Mannheim) following the supplier instructions. The method is based on the oxidation of the product D-galactose by the β-galactose dehydrogenase. The amount of NADH formed in this last reaction is stoichiometric to the amount of lactose and D-galactose. The NADH production was measured following the absorbance increase at 340 nm.
The models of the K. lactis and A. niger β-galactosidases and the hybrid protein were made with the fully automated protein structure homology-modelling server Swiss-Model .
We are grateful for kindly providing materials to Dr. Wésolowski-Louvel (Université Claude Bernard, France) for the MW190-9B strain and to Dr. Fukuhara (Institute Curie, France) for the pSPGK1 plasmid. This research was supported by PGIDIT03BTF10302PR grant from the Xunta de Galicia (Spain). RFL received a fellowship from the Universidade da Coruña (Spain), APR and MCT were supported by the PGIDT01PX110303PN grant from Xunta de Galicia (Spain). Part of the results presented here has been communicated at the 4th Recombinant Protein Production Meeting (Barcelona, 2006).
- Becerra M, Rodríguez-Belmonte ME, Cerdán ME, González Siso MI: Engineered autolytic yeast strains secreting Kluyveromyces lactis β-galactosidase for production of heterologous proteins in lactose media. J Biotechnol. 2004, 109: 131-137. 10.1016/j.jbiotec.2003.10.030.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- González Siso MI: The biotechnological utilization of cheese whey: a review. Biores Technol. 1996, 57: 1-11. 10.1016/0960-8524(96)00036-3.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Becerra M, Díaz-Prado S, González Siso MI, Cerdán ME: New secretory strategies for Kluyveromyces lactis β-galactosidase. Prot Eng. 2001, 14: 379-386. 10.1093/protein/14.5.379.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Becerra M, Cerdán ME, González Siso MI: Microescale purification of the enzyme β-galactosidase from Kluyveromyces lactis reveals that dimeric and tetrameric forms are active. Biotechnol Techniques. 1998, 12: 253-256. 10.1023/A:1008885827560.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Rossini D, Porro D, Brambilla L, Venturini M, Ranzi BM, Vanoni M, Porro D: In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, protein secretion into the growth medium depends on environmental factors. Yeast. 1993, 9: 77-84. 10.1002/yea.320090110.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Henry A, Masters CL, Beyreuther K, Cappai R: Expression of human amyloid precursor protein ectodomains in Pichia pastoris: Analysis of culture conditions, purification and characterization. Protein Expr Purif. 1997, 10: 283-291. 10.1006/prep.1997.0748.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wong DW, Batt SB, Lee CC, Robertson GH: Increased expression and secretion of recombinant alpha-amylase in S. cerevisiae by using glycerol as the carbon source. J Protein Chem. 2002, 21: 419-425. 10.1023/A:1021186601208.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- De Nobel JG: Passage of molecules through yeast cell walls: a brief essay-review. Yeast. 1991, 7: 313-323. 10.1002/yea.320070402.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Soo-Wan N, Yoda K, Yamasaki M: Secretion and localization of invertase and inulinase in recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Biotechnol Letters. 1993, 15: 1049-1054. 10.1007/BF00129936.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Schuster M, Wassenbauer E, Aversa G, Jungbauer A: Transmembrane-sequence-dependent overexpression and secretion of glycoproteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Protein Expres Purif. 2001, 21: 1-7. 10.1006/prep.2000.1337.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kowalski JM, Parekh RN, Wittrup KD: Secretion efficieny in Saccharomyces cerevisiae of bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor mutants lacking disulfide bonds is correlated with thermodynamic stability. Biochemistry. 1998, 37: 1264-1273. 10.1021/bi9722397.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Bao WG, Fukuhara H: Secretion of human proteins from yeast: stimulation by duplication of polyubiquitin and protein disulphide isomerase genes in Kluyveromyces lactis. Gene. 2001, 272: 103-110. 10.1016/S0378-1119(01)00564-9.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Sagt CMJ, Kleizen B, Verwaal R, De Jong MDM, Müller WH, Smits A, Visser C, Boonstra J, Verkleij AJ, Verrips CT: Introduction of an N-glycosylation site increases secretion of heterologous proteins in yeasts. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2000, 66: 4940-4944. 10.1128/AEM.66.11.4940-4944.2000.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lee J, Park JS, Moon JY, Kim KY, Moon HM: The influence of glycosylation on secretion, stability, and immunogenicity of recombinant HBV pre-S antigen synthesized in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003, 303: 427-432. 10.1016/S0006-291X(03)00351-6.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Katakura Y, Ametani A, Totsuka M, Nagafuchi S, Kaminogawa S: Accelerated secretion of mutant beta-lactoglobulin in Saccharomyces cerevisiae resulting from a single amino acid substitution. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1999, 1432: 302-312.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kumar V, Ramakrishnan S, Teeri TT, Knowles JKC, Hartley BS: Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells secreting an Aspergillus niger beta-galactosidase grow on whey permeate. Bio/Technol. 1992, 10: 82-85. 10.1038/nbt0192-82.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Pignatelli R, Vai M, Alberghina L, Popolo L: Expression and secretion of beta-galactosidase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using the signal sequences of GgpI, the mayor yeast glycosylphosphatidylinositol-containing protein. Biotechnol Appl Biochem. 1998, 27: 81-88.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Boyd D, Beckwith J: The role of charged aminoacids in the localization of secreted and membrane proteins. Cell. 1990, 62: 1031-1033. 10.1016/0092-8674(90)90378-R.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Nixon AE, Ostermeier M, Benkovic SJ: Hybrid enzymes: manipulating enzyme design. Trends Biotechnol. 1998, 16: 258-264. 10.1016/S0167-7799(98)01204-9.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Chen R: A general strategy for enzyme engineering. Trends Biotechnol. 1999, 17: 344-345. 10.1016/S0167-7799(99)01324-4.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kikuchi M, Harayama S: DNA shuffling and family shuffling for in vitro gene evolution. Methods Mol Biol. 2002, 182: 243-257.Google Scholar
- Lutz S, Patrick WM: Novel methods for directed evolution of enzymes: quality, not quantity. Curr Opin Biotechnol. 2004, 15: 291-297. 10.1016/j.copbio.2004.05.004.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Bloom JD, Meyer MM, Meinhold P, Otey CR, MacMillan D, Arnold FH: Evolving strategies for enzyme engineering. Curr Opin Struct Biol. 2005, 15: 447-452. 10.1016/j.sbi.2005.06.004.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Crameri A, Raillard SA, Bermúdez E, Stemmer WP: DNA shuffling of a family of genes from diverse species accelerates directed evolution. Nature. 1998, 391: 288-291. 10.1038/34663.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Harayama S: Artificial evolution by DNA shuffling. Trends Biotechnol. 1998, 16: 76-82. 10.1016/S0167-7799(97)01158-X.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Fleer R, Chen XJ, Amellal N, Yeh P, Fournier A, Guinet F, Gault N, Faucher B, Folliard F, Fukuhara H, Mayaux JF: High-level secretion of correctly processed recombinant human interleukin-1β in Kluyveromyces lactis. Gene. 1991, 107: 285-295. 10.1016/0378-1119(91)90329-A.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Jacobson RH, Zhan XJ, DuBose RF, Matthews BW: Three-dimensional structure of β-galactosidase from E. coli. Nature. 1994, 369: 761-766. 10.1038/369761a0.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Widmer J, Leuba JL: Beta-Galactosidase from Aspergillus niger. Separation and characterization of three multiple forms. Eur J Biochem. 1979, 100: 559-567. 10.1111/j.1432-1033.1979.tb04202.x.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Dickson RC, Dickson LR, Markin JS: Purification and properties of an inducible β-galactosidase isolated from the yeast Kluyveromyces lactis. J Bacteriol. 1979, 137: 51-61.Google Scholar
- Tello-Solís SR, Jiménez-Guzmán J, Sarabia-Leos C, Gómez-Ruíz L, Cruz-Guerrero AE, Rodríguez-Serrano GM, García-Garibay M: Determination of the secondary structure of Kluyveromyces lactis β-galactosidase by circular dichroism and its structure-activity relationship as a function of the pH. J Agric Food Chem. 2005, 53: 10200-10204. 10.1021/jf051480m.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Santos A, Ladero M, García-Ochoa F: Kinetic modelling of lactose hydrolysis by a β-galactosidase from Kluyveromyces fragilis. Enzyme Microb Technol. 1998, 22: 558-567. 10.1016/S0141-0229(97)00236-6.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Makowski K, Bialkowska A, Szczesna-Antczak M, Kalinowska H, Kur J, Cieslinski H, Turkiewicz M: Immobilized preparation of cold-adapted and halotolerant Antarctic β-galactosidase as a highly stable catalyst in lactose hydrolysis. FEMS Microb Ecol. 2006, DOI: 10.1111/j.1574-6941.2006.00208.xGoogle Scholar
- Kim SH, Lim KP, Kim HS: Differences in the hydrolysis of lactose and other substrates by β-D-galactosidase from Kluyveromyces lactis. J Dairy Sci. 1997, 80: 2264-2269.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Matthews BW: The structure of E. coli β-galactosidase. C R Biologies. 2005, 328: 549-556. 10.1016/j.crvi.2005.03.006.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Swiss-Model. [http://swissmodel.expasy.org//]
- Poch O, L'Hote H, Dallery V, Debeaux F, Fleer R, Sodoyer R: Sequence of the Kluyveromyces lactis β-galactosidase: Comparison with prokaryotic enzymes and secondary structure analysis. Gene. 1992, 118: 55-63. 10.1016/0378-1119(92)90248-N.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Zitomer RS, Hall BD: Yeast cytocrome c messenger RNA in vitro translation and specific inmunoprecipitation of the CYC1 gene product. J Biol Chem. 1976, 251: 6320-6326.Google Scholar
- Ausubel FM, Brent R, Kinston RE, Moore DD, Seidman JG, Smith JA, Struhl K: Current Protocols in Molecular Biology. 1995, New York: John Wiley & Sons, IncGoogle Scholar
- Ito H, Fukuda Y, Murata K, Kimura A: Transformation of intact yeast cells treated with alkali cations. J Bacteriol. 1983, 153: 163-168.Google Scholar
- Guarente L: Yeast promoters and lacZ fusions designed to study expression of cloned genes in yeast. Meth Enzymol. 1983, 101: 181-191.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Bradford MM: A rapid and sensitive method for the quantification of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Anal Biochem. 1976, 72: 248-254. 10.1016/0003-2697(76)90527-3.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Protein Data Bank. [http://www.pdb.org/pdb/home/home.do]
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.